Meaning This review suggests that intermittent fasting may have a beneficial role in improving anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes, especially for adults with overweight or obesity.
”We found a significant direct association between vitamin D deficiency and elevated risk of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Moreover, each unit increment in serum vitamin D levels was associated to significant reduction in risk of COVID-19 mortality.”
Ebrahimzadeh A, Mohseni S, Narimani B, Ebrahimzadeh A, Kazemi S, Keshavarz F, Yaghoubi MJ, Milajerdi A. Association between vitamin D status and risk of covid-19 in-hospital mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Dec 9:1-11. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.2012419. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34882024.
”Riboflavin is unique among the water-soluble vitamins in that milk and dairy products make the greatest contribution to its intake in Western diets. Meat and fish are also good sources of riboflavin”
”Biochemical signs of depletion arise within only a few days of dietary deprivation.”
”There is reasonably good evidence that poor riboflavin status interferes with iron handling and contributes to the etiology of anemia when iron intakes are low. Various mechanisms for this have been proposed, including effects on the gastrointestinal tract that might compromise the handling of other nutrients.”
Powers HJ. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1352-60. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/77.6.1352. PMID: 12791609.
”Conclusions: Decline in serum concentrations of IL-1β and IL-1β/IL-4 ratio in obese women suggests that vitamin A is capable of regulating the immune system and possibly reducing the risk of autoimmune disease in this group.”
Farhangi MA, Keshavarz SA, Eshraghian M, Ostadrahimi A, Saboor-Yaraghi AA. Vitamin A supplementation and serum Th1- and Th2-associated cytokine response in women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(4):280-5. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2013.816616. PMID: 24024773.
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient that comes in multiple forms, including retinols, retinals, and retinoic acids. Dietary vitamin A is absorbed as retinol from preformed retinoids or as pro-vitamin A carotenoids that are converted into retinol in the enterocyte. These are then delivered to the liver for storage via chylomicrons and later released into the circulation and to its biologically active tissues bound to retinol-binding protein. Vitamin A is a crucial component of many important and diverse biological functions, including reproduction, embryological development, cellular differentiation, growth, immunity, and vision. Vitamin A functions mostly through nuclear retinoic acid receptors, retinoid X receptors, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Retinoids regulate the growth and differentiation of many cell types within skin, and its deficiency leads to abnormal epithelial keratinization. In wounded tissue, vitamin A stimulates epidermal turnover, increases the rate of re-epithelialization, and restores epithelial structure. Retinoids have the unique ability to reverse the inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory steroids on wound healing. In addition to its role in the inflammatory phase of wound healing, retinoic acid has been demonstrated to enhance production of extracellular matrix components such as collagen type I and fibronectin, increase proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and decrease levels of degrading matrix metalloproteinases.
Polcz ME, Barbul A. The Role of Vitamin A in Wound Healing. Nutr Clin Pract. 2019 Oct;34(5):695-700. doi: 10.1002/ncp.10376. Epub 2019 Aug 7. PMID: 31389093.
”Specifically, we propose that persons with autism can benefit from increased levels of adenosine, a powerful inhibitory neuromodulator and the core molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).”
Susan A. Masino, Julia Svedova, Masahito Kawamura, Jr., Francis D. DiMario, Jr. and Inge-Marie Eigsti (August 17th 2011). Adenosine and Autism – Recent Research and a New Perspective, Autism – A Neurodevelopmental Journey from Genes to Behaviour, Valsamma Eapen, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/18957. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/18064
”The potential implications for future health are significant. Childhood is a critical period for biological development and the establishment of dietary behaviors. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found that higher intake of ultraprocessed foods is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes in adults and with overweight or obesity in children”
Meyer KA, Taillie LS. Intake of Ultraprocessed Foods Among US Youths: Health Concerns and Opportunities for Research and Policy. JAMA.2021;326(6):485–487. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.9845
Conclusion This study shows the short-term beneficial effects of carbohydrate-restricted diet on serum BDNF and executive function in those individuals characterized with MetS. We have shown that the addition of exercise can further improve neuroprotection and cognitive function beyond the results of diet alone.
Gyorkos A, Baker MH, Miutz LN, Lown DA, Jones MA, Houghton-Rahrig LD. Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and Exercise Increase Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Function: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Cureus. 2019 Sep 9;11(9):e5604. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5604. PMID: 31700717; PMCID: PMC6822553.
The severe form of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is characterized by cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension have, as minor common denominators, chronic low-grade inflammation and high plasma myeloperoxidase levels, which could be linked to pulmonary phagocytic hyperactivation and CSS. The hyperactivation of M1 macrophages with a proinflammatory phenotype, which is linked to aerobic glycolysis, leads to the recruitment of monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets from circulating blood and plays a crucial role in thrombo-inflammation (as recently demonstrated in COVID-19) through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and monocyte-platelet aggregates, which could be responsible for DIC. The modulation of glucose availability for activated M1 macrophages by means of a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD) could represent a possible metabolic tool for reducing adenosine triphosphate production from aerobic glycolysis in the M1 macrophage phenotype during the exudative phase. This approach could reduce the overproduction of cytokines and, consequently, the accumulation of neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets from the blood. Second, an EKD could be advantageous for the metabolism of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages because these cells predominantly express oxidative phosphorylation enzymes and are best fed by the oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria. An EKD could guarantee the availability of free fatty acids, which are an optimal fuel supply for these cells. Third, an EKD, which could reduce high lactate formation by macrophages due to glycolysis, could favor the production of interferon type I, which are inhibited by excessive lactate production. From a practical point of view, the hypothesis, in addition to being proven in clinical studies, must obviously take into account the contraindications of an EKD, particularly type 1 or 2 diabetes treated with drugs that can cause hypoglycemia, to avoid the risk for side effects of the diet.”
Sukkar SG, Bassetti M. Induction of ketosis as a potential therapeutic option to limit hyperglycemia and prevent cytokine storm in COVID-19. Nutrition. 2020;79-80:110967. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.110967
” Conclusions: This study confirms that 25OH-vitamin D serum deficiency is associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration and risk of death, in elderly COVID-19 patients. The detection of low vitamin D levels also in younger COVID-19 patients with less comorbidities further suggests vitamin D deficiency as crucial risk factor at any age.”
Sulli A, Gotelli E, Casabella A, Paolino S, Pizzorni C, Alessandri E, Grosso M, Ferone D, Smith V, Cutolo M. Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 24;13(3):717. doi: 10.3390/nu13030717. PMID: 33668240; PMCID: PMC7996150.
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